Lightly grease a 9-inch tart pan with a removable bottom.
Combine flour, sugar, vanilla extract, and salt in a food processor. Pulse a few times to combine. Add cold butter and pulse several more times until the mixture resembles coarse sand; mixture will be very crumbly. Pour mixture into the prepared tart pan. Use damp hands to press crumbs together evenly along the bottom and up the sides of the pan to form a crust. Use a fork to gently prick the bottom of the crust several times. Place crust in the freezer for 15 minutes.
Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C).
Remove crust from freezer and place it on a cookie sheet. Line the crust with aluminum foil and fill with dried beans.
Bake in the preheated oven until crust begins to turn golden brown, 20 to 25 minutes. Remove beans and aluminum foil. Return crust to the oven and bake until center of crust is set, 5 to 7 minutes more. Remove from oven and reduce heat to 325 degrees F (165 degrees C).
Meanwhile whisk together sugar, cornstarch, and salt in a large heat-safe bowl. Mix in blood orange juice, eggs, egg yolk, and zest until smooth. Bring a pot of water to a low simmer. Place bowl with blood orange mixture over the pot of simmering water, making sure bowl does not touch water. Cook, stirring constantly, until mixture thickens enough to coat the back of a spoon, 5 to 10 minutes. Remove bowl from heat and stir in butter a piece at a time, ensuring each piece melts before adding the next. Pour custard mixture through a fine-mesh sieve into the prepared crust.
Bake in the preheated oven until custard is set, 15 to 20 minutes. Allow tart to cool to room temperature before removing from pan, about 30 minutes.
Chill tart for about 3 hours. Top with blood orange slices before serving.
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