Preheat the oven to 475 degrees F (245 degrees C). Drizzle olive oil into a roasting pan or baking dish.
Cut Romanesco into quarters, being sure to cut directly through the thick center core, so that they stay together when roasted. Set aside until needed.
Add anchovies and 3 tablespoons olive oil to a large mixing bowl and use the back of a fork to mash the anchovies into a paste. Add red pepper flakes and lemon juice and stir with a fork to combine.
Toss Romanesco in the dressing until the pieces are thoroughly coated. Sprinkle with bread crumbs and 1/2 of the Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese and toss until evenly coated.
Transfer Romanesco into the prepared pan, cut side-down. Scrape all cheese and crumbs from the mixing bowl and scatter over the top. Grate the remaining Parmigiano-Reggiano to cover the tops and lightly drizzle with olive oil.
Bake in the preheated oven until the cheese is browned and the Romanesco is tender, as tested with the tip of a knife in the cores, about 20 minutes. Serve immediately with fresh lemon wedges.
Mash the anchovy filets down to your desired consistency.
Finely crushed garlic can be added to the anchovy and lemon mixture if so desired.
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